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Backwash Tuning for Reliable Sand Filtration

By Nattapong Pongboot and Wiroon Tanthapanichakoon, Global R&D Co. Ltd., and Wirinya Karunkeyoon and Kanyaporn Lertwimolkasem, PTT Global Chemical |

This practical guide provides information on proven backwash-tuning techniques that will improve the reliability and robustness of sand filters in water treatment applications Water is a fundamental part of virtually all plants in the chemical process industries (CPI). Examples of water usage include the following: makeup water for an open, recirculating cooling-water system; boiler feedwater for steam production; firewater; and others. Raw water must be treated or clarified before being used as makeup water in most utility processes. Clarification and filtration remove suspended and partially dissolved solids, bacteria and other forms of impurities to help prevent system scale, corrosion, and fouling. Figure 1. The diagram shows a simplified raw-water treatment process, with clarification plus filtration[/caption] A simplified flow diagram of a typical raw-water treatment plant is illustrated in Figure 1. Clarification takes place in three sequential steps, described here: Coagulation. Coagulants (such as inorganic salts of aluminum or iron) are usually added to initiate coagulation. Because coagulation prefers high shear and rapid mixing, coagulants are generally injected into the feed line upstream of a static mixer. Flocculation.…
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